ANY ENDOSCOPIC STUDY IS PERFORMED WITH ANALYSIS OF BLOOD ON HEPATITIS, SYPHILIS, AIDS (HBSAG, RW, HIV).
How to prepare for endoscopy and bronchoscopy (FBS)
An endoscopic examination is performed on an empty stomach to avoid accidentally throwing leftovers of food or fluid into the airways during gagging or coughing, so the last meal should be no later than 21 hours before the study.
On the day of the study, do not eat or drink before the procedure. If you need to take medicine, consult your doctor about the schedule of admission on the day of the study. It is necessary to carry out the removal of electrocardiography (ECG) in advance.
Bronchoscopy usually takes 30 to 60 minutes. Recovery will take 2 to 3 hours. After the procedure: do not eat or drink anything for 2 hours, do not drive the vehicle, within 8 hours after the procedure, do not smoke for 24 hours.
How to prepare for fibrogastroscopy (FGS)
Regardless of the reason for assigning the study, there are important steps that you must take to prepare and go through the procedure. First of all, be sure to tell the doctor about which medications you are taking and about the allergy to the medications, if you have one. Also, the doctor should be aware of what diseases you suffer from, which you need to pay attention to before the procedure.
It is very important in preparation for the study that you should not eat for 8-10 hours before gastroscopy. Food in the stomach makes it difficult to examine and make the correct diagnosis. The last meal on the eve at 18.00. On the day of the examination, do not have breakfast, do not drink 4-5 hours before the examination. With thirst, you can drink half a glass of water.
How to prepare for fibrocolonoscopy (FCC)
In order to examine the mucous membrane of the colon, it is necessary that there are no feces in its lumen. The success and informational content of the study is determined mainly by the quality of preparation for the procedure, so pay the most serious attention to the implementation of the following recommendations.
If you do not suffer from constipation, that is, the absence of an independent stool for 72 hours, then the preparation for the study is as follows:
1. Using cleansing enemas. On the eve of the study at 6 o’clock, you need to take 40-60 grams of castor oil. Other laxatives (senna drugs, bisacodyl, etc.) lead to a pronounced increase in colon tone, which makes the study more time-consuming and often painful. After an independent stool, it is necessary to make 2 enemas of 1-1.5 liters. Enema is done at 20 and 22 hours. On the morning of the day of the study, it is necessary to make 2 more of the same enemas (at 7 and 8 hours). No need to fast on the day of the study.
2. Without the use of cleansing enemas. Preparation for a colonoscopy WITHOUT ANIMALY with the FORTRANS preparation. For patients weighing up to 60 kg, 3 sachets are needed. The last meal on the eve at 18.00. The day before at 19.00 1 packet, having dissolved in water (according to the annotation), to drink within 1 hour. Within 2 hours, drink the 2nd packet, dissolving in water (according to the annotation). On the day of the study, drink the 3rd packet, dissolving in water (according to the annotation) at 6.00 - 7.00. For patients weighing more than 60 kg, 4 sachets are needed. Reception of 3 packages within 3 hours the evening before from 19.00. On the day of the study, the 4th package, dissolved in water (according to the annotation) at 6.00 - 7.00.
If you have a tendency to constipation, then in order to prepare for a colonoscopy, you need to follow a few recommendations: 3-4 days before the study, you need to switch to a special (non-slag) diet, excluding fresh vegetables and fruits, legumes, brown bread, cabbage in any kind (both fresh and cooked). At the same time, it is necessary to take laxatives that you usually use daily. It may be necessary to increase their dose - consult your healthcare provider to resolve this issue. Further preparation does not differ from the foregoing.
How to prepare for sigmoidoscopy (RRS)
Preparation is the same as for fibrocolonoscopy (see above).
Endoscopic examination of the stomach: methods and indications
Fibrogastroduodenoscopy (FGS) is the most common method of internal examination of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In addition to wide distribution, this method is the most effective in the timely diagnosis and treatment of gastritis and ulcers.
The FGS procedure is quite simple. The patient swallows a special "probe" with a camera, and the doctor conducts a visual examination of the surface of the digestive system. Additionally, it is possible to take tissue from an internal organ for analysis.
Indications for fibrogastroduodenoscopy are:
• Signs of a digestive disorder: vomiting, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, blood discharge,
• Surgical treatment procedures: local treatment of ulcers, expansion of the esophagus (bougienage), (non-surgical expansion), removal of polyps,
• Suspicion of disease according to the results of conservative tests,
• Evaluation of the intermediate and final results of treatment,
• Screening before surgery.
If there is evidence, the attending physician appoints the time of the examination. Before this, you need to undergo some preparation - endoscopy of the stomach is performed subject to certain conditions. Before direct insertion of the “probe” into the patient’s esophagus, the doctor talks about the patient’s actions at the beginning of the procedure, during and after it. The main thing to follow these recommendations and discomfort will be minimal.
Preparation for gastric endoscopy
At first glance, it might seem that preparing for endoscopy of the stomach is a complicated procedure. In fact, it is simply the implementation of certain simple recommendations that will ultimately help the doctor make the most accurate diagnosis and prescribe the right treatment. General recommendations in preparation:
• The procedure is performed on an empty stomach - at least 8 hours before the procedure, food and drink should be excluded,
• Do not drink alcohol and tobacco the day before the procedure and on the day of the examination,
• Consult with doctors of other specialties in case of heart and respiratory diseases,
• Temporarily stop or reduce the dose (after appropriate consultation with your doctor) of blood thinning medications.
Gastric Examination Results
It has been experimentally proven that endoscopic examination of the stomach is the most accurate and objective. Based on the results of the examination, a detailed transcript of all anomalies and pathologies that are identified during the procedure is issued. Some endoscopic rooms provide an HD recording of the study.
Obtaining objective data allows you to build the right treatment plan.
What is a stomach endoscopy
Endoscopic examination of the stomach is carried out using a special device - an endoscope. Modern devices are in the form of a relatively thin bendable tube in which a digital video camera, a light source and an air supply device are located.
If necessary, biopsy forceps or instruments for simple surgical interventions can be connected to the endoscope:
- for coagulation of a bleeding vessel,
- to remove the polyp.
The image from the digital video camera is transmitted to the monitor screen in real time, so it is possible to examine in detail the mucous membrane of almost all parts of the stomach and see the pathological changes on it:
- bleeding vessels
- signs of atrophy or hypertrophy of the inner surface.
In simpler models of endoscopes, the doctor examines the mucous membrane through a special eyepiece, which, if necessary, enlarges the image.
In addition to the stomach, during the FGDS, the doctor examines the condition of the internal surfaces of the esophagus and duodenum (duodenum).
Indications for the procedure
Endoscopy of the stomach and duodenum is prescribed in the following situations:
- for the purpose of making a diagnosis at the initial visit to a doctor in case of suspected gastritis or other diseases of the upper digestive tract,
- as a control of treatment and monitoring in dynamics during preventive examinations in case of gastric ulcer, duodenum and other diseases of these organs,
- for taking a biopsy.
Also FGDS is done:
- in situations where there are pains in the sternum, since they can resemble cardiac, with peptic ulcer or gastritis,
- with anemia of unknown origin.
Medical endoscopy is prescribed to remove polyps of the stomach, coagulate a bleeding vessel, remove foreign bodies and perform balloon dilatation in case of cicatricial narrowing (stenosis) of the stomach.
- acute period of myocardial infarction,
- acute cerebrovascular accident,
- coma, agonal conditions,
- broncho-pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases in the stage of decompensation,
- in the presence of anatomical and topographic changes that impede a purely technically similar procedure - for example, pronounced cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus.
In the case of relative contraindications, FGDS is possible after correction of the disease and stabilization of the condition. These include:
- high blood pressure
- thoracic aortic aneurysm,
- inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx,
- mental illness, etc.
How is endoscopy performed?
To suppress the gag reflex, the patient is irrigated with a local anesthetic, most often lidocaine, and then a special mouthguard is inserted into the mouth, which prevents the teeth from being squeezed during the operation.
Endoscopy of the stomach is carried out in the supine position. The doctor puts the tip of the probe on the tongue and asks the patient to swallow, and thereby moves him deeper into the esophagus. As a rule, pain does not occur, but there is discomfort. When moving the tube through the esophagus, sensations of a foreign body, lack of air, and tears may spontaneously leak from the eyes. But all this is relatively easy to tolerate: just don’t worry, don’t panic, but just try to breathe through your nose. Often during the procedure, increased salivation is noted.
To better examine the mucous membrane, air is pumped into the stomach cavity through the endoscope, due to which the organ is, as it were, inflated from the inside. With the help of endoscopy, you can perform a biopsy of the stomach, when pieces of the mucous membrane are bitten off with special tweezers, and then sent to the laboratory for histological examination.
As a rule, the usual diagnostic endoscopy lasts about 5-7 minutes. After it for some time there remains a slight bitter aftertaste and a feeling of numbness in the oral cavity, a sore throat, a sensation of bloating due to the air introduced during gastroscopy. Many patients report increased fatigue and a decrease in concentration of attention - this is how sedative drugs used in preparation for FGDS can act.
A survey of traditional gastroscopy will be ready in the near future. In the description, the doctor reflects the following points:
- condition of the mucous membrane of organs (esophagus, stomach, duodenum),
- stomach contents (character, appearance),
- the presence or absence of defects,
- organ motor activity,
- focal lesions, tumors.
After obtaining the results of FGDS, the patient is sent to a specialist who will prescribe the appropriate treatment or further examination.
When using modern endoscopes, complications in the case of FGDS are extremely rare. The most serious of them are:
- Perforation (perforation) of the stomach - observed mainly in elderly patients, is extremely rare.
- Severe bleeding. Minor bleeding after a gastroscopy is possible in the event of a biopsy or removal of the polyp and passes on its own. But prolonged and intense bleeding always requires examination by a doctor.
- Aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs. This happens in case of improper preparation of the patient, when he comes to the procedure not on an empty stomach. The risk is minimized in case of complete abstinence from food and fluid intake several hours before gastroscopy.
When the following complications appear, you should immediately see a doctor:
- Intense abdominal pain.
- The abdomen becomes hard to the touch, its strong bloating is noted.
- A feeling of crunching under the skin.
- Sore throat, difficulty swallowing.
- Vomiting blood.
How often can I do
Endoscopy of the stomach is an unpleasant, but quite safe procedure. Therefore, it is recommended that everyone do it during the annual preventive examination. If pathology is not revealed, then a second examination is not necessary.
- If any disease is detected, treatment is prescribed and, at the end of the course, repeated gastroscopy.
- Medical endoscopy is indicated in those situations when you need to conduct appropriate surgery or take a biopsy.
In general, there are no restrictions on the number of fibrogastroscopy procedures.
Alternative - capsule endoscopy
Capsule endoscopy is a safer and more comfortable diagnostic method for examining the stomach and intestines. Allows you to get high-quality images of the intestines, stomach and esophagus.
The essence of the procedure is that the patient puts on a vest with a recording device and swallows a miniature video capsule. As it moves along the gastrointestinal tract, it transmits information about the state of the mucous membranes, and then leaves the body in a natural way during bowel movement.
Compared with FGDS, video capsule endoscopy has a higher cost.
Medical expert articles
Most often, health problems begin at a time when a person does not even think about it. This is especially true of diseases of the stomach and other organs that make up the human digestive system. In order to protect yourself at least somehow, to protect and timely notice the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, it is important to do an endoscopy of the stomach. To date, laparoscopic examinations of internal organs can be done in almost any clinic.
The term "endoscopy" ("endon" and "skopeo"), from Greek is translated as: "inside" I "examine". With the help of easily bending tubes, which are equipped with lighting and optical systems, it is possible to examine the organs of the stomach. This helps to investigate even the most minor violations in a short time. Endoscopy of the stomach can be considered one of the most favorable and most commonly used diagnostic methods. Doctors will not prescribe any surgical procedures without the most extreme cases.
Endoscopy is a modern method of visual and instrumental diagnostics, thanks to which you can see diseases of the internal organs. The endoscope is the main research tool with which such a procedure is performed. At one end he has an eyepiece that allows him to observe the picture of the affected area, and at the other end there is a camera that transmits the seen image. With its help, qualified specialists can easily detect a problem at the very early stage of the disease and prescribe appropriate treatment during it.
Endoscopy of the stomach (endoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, gastroscopy) is a type of endoscopic examination in which the duodenum, mucous membrane of the stomach and esophagus are examined with an endoscope. This device is presented in the form of a flexible tube, inside of which there is a fiber optic system. It is thanks to her that the doctor can see the full picture of the internal organs of the stomach on the monitor, as a result of which she can print the received data on a printer.
Such a study is very important in order to find out what condition the duodenum, stomach is in case of cancer is suspected. In addition, endoscopy of the stomach helps to study the lumen of the esophagus, notice gastrointestinal bleeding, with gastritis, esophagitis, gastroduodenitis, establish peptic ulcer of the duodenum or stomach, if any, in the patient's body. An endoscopy of the stomach is also carried out for an additional examination for certain diseases, in order to once again clarify the diagnosis.
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Preparation for endoscopy of the stomach
However, this study can only be carried out on the basis of the testimony of a doctor who must have every reason to carry out endoscopy of the stomach, which will really help in further treatment. In addition, the doctor should be aware of all allergic reactions to medications and related diseases, if it is present in ordinary human life.
But before that, you need to undergo the correct preparation for endoscopy of the stomach. Do not eat for several hours. Endoscopy should be performed exclusively on an empty stomach so that food debris does not complicate the examination, which could subsequently be subjected to any doubt. Поэтому последний прием еды до эндоскопии желудка неплохо бы провести за восемь-десять часов до обследования, не позже.For endoscopy of the stomach, a special endoscopic cabinet is allocated, and it is done exclusively by a trained endoscopist.
If such a need arises, then endoscopy can be performed under the influence of sedative drugs and by spraying an anesthetic drug, in which local anesthesia of the pharynx and root of the tongue is done. Anesthesia can also be used, but it is done extremely rarely, in exceptional cases.
What should the patient do when performing endoscopy of the stomach? First, he must behave calmly, evenly, breathing deeply. If necessary, straighten the folds of the mucous membrane. Then the doctor pumps a little air and monitors the duodenum, stomach and esophagus. He can perform a biopsy or endoscopic pH measurement, stop bleeding, or remove polyps, small tumors and inject medication if a person needs it and has the right symptoms for this. Endoscopy can only last a few minutes. But only after a day all the unpleasant sensations associated with this procedure completely disappear.
Modern technology allows endoscopic examination to be absolutely safe and without difficulty. An exception to the rule may be some complications after the procedure. But such examples are a small percentage. These include perforation of the walls of the investigated organ, mental disorders, damage to the walls with the development of bleeding.
Endoscopy of the stomach for children
Children also have stomach pains, from which they often get pain. In addition, all diseases of the gastrointestinal tract lead to a slowdown in growth and development. One of the most common problems is the child swallowing foreign bodies, as well as indigestion, characteristic of an early age.
In such cases, experts believe that the diagnosis and counseling of infants, premature babies and patients with various chronic diseases is simply necessary. Digestive system problems, acute and chronic diarrhea, periodic abdominal pain, etc., which are usually common in babies, can be avoided and prevented. In the same way as during the provision of treatment, diagnosis and monitoring of many problems. These include celiac disease, pancreatic diseases, chronic inflammation and infectious diseases of the digestive system, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Modern equipment helps doctors identify and cure various diseases. You can do this with:
- impedance of the esophagus,
- expansion of the esophagus
- removal of foreign bodies., polyps in the digestive system,
- liver and intestinal biopsy,
- endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Capsule endoscopy is one of the safest and easiest ways to get test results. As already mentioned above, with capsular endoscopy of the stomach, children should not be afraid of anything. This study does not cause pain not about time, nor after it.
With capsular endoscopy, children 5 years of age and older swallow the video capsule on their own. If the children are younger, from the age of 1 to 5 years, they will need endoscopic help to swallow the video capsule. But, one way or another, it is recommended that children do endoscopy of the stomach, if necessary, even on the advice of doctors.
Capsule endoscopy of the stomach
For those who do not want to stick a long, slippery “hose,” an alternative procedure may be suggested. It is much nicer than the first and is called "capsular endoscopy of the stomach." It is prescribed when it is necessary for the patient to examine the esophagus and small intestine. For this, the patient should only swallow a small plastic capsule, which is pre-equipped with everything important for the examination. This includes a special micro-video camera, micro-transmitter, antenna and batteries, which are designed for 8 hours of operation.
A single-use capsule can reproduce more than 50 thousand vivid images, at 2 photos per second, transmitted to a special device that is mounted on the patient’s belt. The camera shows high quality pictures, and, as a result, makes it possible to determine and diagnose as accurately as possible. In a word, with capsular endoscopy of the stomach, the capsule that the patient swallows goes the same way as the absorbed food goes every day.
This procedure does not cause absolutely any imbalance, pain or discomfort. When you expect a result, you can do anything, in a word, lead a normal lifestyle - running, eating, sleeping ... The only thing you can’t do is abuse fitness and hard physical work.
To decipher the results, the doctor must see and analyze more than 50,000 photographs. Due to the resulting picture, which consists of showing a film in which they show like 24 frames per second. For this entire period, it takes 1.5-2 hours. A field of which all received data is displayed on the screen, and then displayed on the form.
Undesirable contraindications for examination using capsular endoscopy of a person in a person are quite few. These include: difficult as the patient is in a position, intestinal obstruction. You do not need to prepare for a video capsule for hours. It is enough to eat the last time 15-16 hours before the start of the study and the person is ready for it.
What are the benefits of capsular endoscopy of the stomach? It helps to find the initial cause of the ailments that recur periodically or foci of constant ailments, such as: pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, bleeding or anemia in cases where any other methods do not work. For some chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, this method helps to determine the degree to which the small intestine is affected, or shows the result of the treatment already carried out.
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Description of the gastric endoscopy protocol
For endoscopy of the stomach, the protocol description should contain the name of the medical center, endoscopy room and or ward. All personal data about the patient, including: gender, age, department, ward, category should be noted. Moreover, the apparatus and time of the study should be indicated, and sometimes the date. The research number, the nature of the procedure (planned or urgent, primary or secondary), the proposed method of sedation, anesthesia should be provided. If any transendoscopic interventions have been performed, it is necessary to describe them in detail. If an endoscopic examination was performed under general anesthesia, it is important to indicate the composition of the anesthesiology team and the method of anesthesia that was used.
When carrying out endoscopic examination according to emergency indications, the protocol description must certainly contain not only the time and the beginning of the procedure, but also the date and conclusion of the protocol of the endoscopic examination.
In the descriptive part, it is necessary to fully and objectively describe all the departments examined: the esophagus (including cardiac pulp), the stomach, and the duodenum. “Important” and “unimportant” points should not be. In addition, the evaluation parameters, for example, the lumen of the organ, its contents, the state of the inner surface of the wall, its elasticity is a very important point in the endoscopy of the stomach in the description of the protocol. It is also necessary to give a complete description of the motor activity of the organ, to describe the changes, whether they are flat or in-depth, protruding or not. If focal lesions are detected, for any of them it is necessary to give a description of such parameters as quantity, localization, size, characteristics of the base, edge, and surrounding mucous membrane.
In the description of the protocol, it is necessary to use a single terminology. All definitions and terms should allow to establish visually this disease. At the same time, the protocol descriptions for endoscopy of the stomach should be simple and easy to read.
The final part of the protocol should contain a brief conclusion of the results of endoscopy of the stomach. It is worth remembering that the endoscopic conclusion is not the final diagnosis. In addition, it is certainly important to write recommendations to the attending physician or medical team on duty for the further management of the patient, as well as the need for additional or repeated procedures.
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The cost of endoscopy
As a result of the analysis, the doctor and the patient receive the necessary data on the state of the entire digestive tract. Only this procedure makes it possible to fully establish the problems existing in the stomach. With endoscopy of the stomach, the price will vary depending on the medical center itself. Basically, they are all private. But in government clinics, this is also possible. After carrying out this study, a person receives not only the results of his analyzes, but also detailed recommendations from a doctor, as well as a video recording of the examination.
With endoscopy of the stomach, the price does not scare a person who decides to undergo an examination. It is affordable and acceptable. But it is advisable not to engage in smoking before the start of the study, so as not to invalidate the results.
It is worth telling those who want to do endoscopy of the stomach in the future that at the moment there are technologies that allow you to perform endoscopy of the stomach when a person is sleeping. During this procedure, a person simply falls asleep, and waking up does not experience any discomfort or any unpleasant sensations. An important role in this process is played by the anesthetist, who takes the patient to 10 minutes of drug sleep with the help of special drugs. They can not be attributed to narcotic analgesics. In this case, with endoscopy of the stomach, the price will be slightly higher than with the usual procedure. This amount will include both the cost of drugs for anesthesia and the services of an anesthetist. In some institutions, this amount coincides with the price of the endoscopy of the stomach itself.
It is advisable for each person whose age does not exceed 40 years to undergo a stomach endoscopy once a year in order to prevent certain diseases of the stomach. People with esophagitis, gastritis, etc. endoscopy is recommended at least 2 times a year. Modern medical institutions conduct endoscopic examination of the stomach. Its price will be from 200 to 1000 UAH. It will vary depending on the complaints of the patient, equipment, medical center and the experience of the doctor who decides to conduct it.
Reviews about endoscopy of the stomach
Not a single ultrasound, not a single X-ray can give such detailed and error-free results as endoscopy. Pulmology, urology, gynecology, gastroenterology - these are the areas where endoscopy is widely used. This method helps to examine the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), duodenum (duodenoscopy), and colon (colonoscopy). The device, the endoscope makes it possible not only to scrupulously see the internal picture of the body, but also to make a biopsy, which consists in analyzing a piece of the affected tissue, which is taken in order to understand whether there are disturbing signs that threaten a person’s life or not. If a dangerous transformation of cells is detected in the early stages, then it is possible to avoid the sad consequences. The main thing is to see a doctor at the time. In the first stages, any, even the most terrible ailment can be dealt with.
Therefore, with endoscopy of the stomach, reviews are only positive. For the sake of his health, a person is not afraid to do it. Moreover, this is not as scary as it seems at first. It’s always scary for the first time. It is better to survive during the long preparatory procedures on the eve, excitement, discomfort during swallowing the tube and after, than then suffer from the treatment of a protracted disease. 5-10 minutes of anxiety and all, the results of your health are already in your hands. Reviews with endoscopy of the stomach can be different, but everyone is happy that they went through it and are now calm for their health, because they can manage it themselves.
The main condition for successfully undergoing endoscopy of the stomach is mood. Patients can facilitate their research if they breathe deeply and evenly through their noses, relax, are not afraid and swallow quietly, but at the same time, without spitting out the tube, but as soon as possible to do all the doctor’s instructions. It's like learning to drive or giving birth. Listen to the doctor’s commands and then everything will turn out in the best possible way. In general, those who are afraid to do endoscopy of the stomach, people's feedback can help. They contain their impressions and advice.