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How to install a hard drive on a computer? Rules for installing a hard drive on a computer


Not all personal computer users purchase a device for the sake of productive video games, video rendering or 3D model processing. Quite a lot of people use a PC exclusively for watching videos, storing photos and surfing the Internet.

For such users, the main parameter in the computer will be the amount of internal memory. The more disk space, the more data you can store, which is especially true if you watch video in 1080p resolution and listen to music without compression. Thus, the average movie size can be about 20 gigabytes, and the size of one music file, at least 15 megabytes. What can we say about video games, which can reach 60 gigabytes in an uninstalled form and more than 100 in an installed one.

A modern computer is simply obliged to have at least one terabyte of memory, otherwise, a person will constantly experience inconvenience associated with a lack of memory. Let's figure out how to install multiple hard drives in a computer.

What parameters should the motherboard support

Of course, no one will purchase a new motherboard (MP) for the hard drive, however, if the MP is significantly outdated, it will still have to be changed.

Previously, hard drives were connected to the MP using the so-called IDE connector.

To distinguish an IDE connector from a modern SATA is quite simple. An outdated connector is connected using a cable from many wires, while 2 thin wires are connected to the SATA connector, one for power and one for data transfer. If the motherboard does not have a SATA connector, a person will have to replace the motherboard.

When purchasing a motherboard, the buyer should pay attention to the presence of SATA 3 standard and the number of SATA connectors. In addition, a person should pay attention to the power supply has enough connectors for powering SATA components.

Hard drive selection

Depending on how many SATA connectors are on the motherboard, a person can purchase as many hard drives. There are motherboards with 12 connectors for connecting hard drives, but for such a computer, you will have to purchase the appropriate power supply. Firstly, it should have enough power connectors, and secondly, the power supply should have enough power to operate so many components.

If the motherboard of the computer supports only SATA 2 type, then the SATA 3 hard drive connected to this interface will work at a slightly lower speed, limited by the SATA 2 data transfer rate.

When choosing the amount of memory, it is advisable to purchase the most capacious drive possible, especially if the MP is limited to 2 - 3 SATA connectors. However, if the buyer is not limited in funds, he can purchase a hard drive of maximum capacity, commercially available. Although, of course, it’s better not to store all the data on one drive.

As a manufacturer, it is best to purchase those hard drives developed by well-known companies, such as Toshiba, WD and Seagate.

A working computer makes quite a noticeable noise, the source of which is the cooling fans and the hard drive. The railway is especially noisy during reading or writing. Naturally, the more hard drives, the stronger the noise emitted by the computer. Hard drives with a lower rotation speed of 5400 - 5700 rpm are less noisy. Unfortunately, the reduced rotation speed negatively affects the overall speed. In addition, if the computer is assembled to order or on its own, then you should choose a high-quality case with anti-resonance properties. In order to completely get rid of noise, you need to purchase SSD drives, but their cost is much higher than the cost of classic drives with less capacity.

A 250 GB SSD hard drive will cost 1 TB as an ordinary HDD, but its data transfer speed is several times higher than ordinary hard drives. The material “What is kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte” explains about units of information.

The main stages of installing a hard drive

The most common reason for installing a new hard drive is the failure of the previous one. In this case, the replacement process is surprisingly simple. To begin with, of course, you need to open the system unit cover, for which first unscrew the 2 fixing screws on each wall of the rear side of the case (it is better to put the screws in sight so as not to lose them). Next, you need to disconnect the burned-out hard drive from the power cable and data bus, release it from the fastening screws and remove it.

Having it as a sample, go to the store. And having bought a new analog, take the hard drive out of the package, inspect for the moment of absence of serious external damage and scratches. If so, then start installing it. You need to connect everything in the reverse order. After completing this procedure once, you will already know how to install a hard drive on a computer

It is important to note that all work is performed with the power turned off, also for convenience, disconnect all cables connected to the PC case and place it on the table.

Features of installing hard drives in different formats

Let's look at how to install a new hard drive, if you first took up this business. Joining a hard drive will not be much more difficult, but for those who do not have the appropriate experience and are faced with this task for the first time, the information presented will be useful.

First of all, you must remember that different generations of hard drives have different connection standards, and accordingly, different connectors.

Installation Rules

If based on the opinion of most experts on how to properly install a hard drive, we recommend that you first make sure that the motherboard supports the installed hard drive, as well as confirm their compatibility. On some motherboards, there may be two types at once: SATA and IDE, but usually in such system units DVD drives are connected to IDE loops. Although they are suitable for hard drives.

Earlier in computers, the emphasis was on the IDE format, which was tested in practice, which proved its reliability and compatibility with many well-known models. But as technologies are constantly evolving, obsolete are gradually abandoned, new, more modern ones come to replace them. With the introduction of the new SATA format, the IDE is already a thing of the past, and although disks with it are no longer sold, it is still in widespread use.

Format Features

The electronic-mechanical basis of both formats is identical, the differences are in the type of interface used. The IDE loop has a maximum throughput of 133 MB / s. Existing SATA1, SATA2, and SATA3 standards provide up to 150, 300, and 600 MB / s, respectively.

The advantages of the IDE include the ability to connect two devices to one cable (while the total channel bandwidth is shared between them), and each SATA device is connected by a separate interface cable.

Another disadvantage of the IDE is the need to manually select and use the jumpers to set the modes - Master / Slave, and also to make BIOS settings which of the hard drives should be considered the main one if the second one is connected.

Install Hard Drives

Before installing a new component, you must turn off the computer and remove both covers of the system unit. You can access the motherboard on the left side of the case. In the front of the case are several compartments of the "pockets" in which hard drives are installed. The number of "pockets" depends on the form factor of the case. The standard ATX case of the form factor on average has about four sites for installing a railway.

The hard drive placed in the bay is fixed with bolts on both sides of the system unit. Usually, bolts come with a hard drive.

Reliably fixed railway makes much less noise. In addition, the hard drive has a movable mechanism, due to which, a poorly fixed part, due to constant vibrations, can be damaged.

After installing the hard drive in the case, it must be connected to the motherboard and power. Both connectors are similar, but it is simply not possible to connect power to the data connector.

Thus, a special SATA cable is connected to the hard drive, the other end of which is connected to the motherboard.

Wires for powering the railway are connected directly from the power supply.

After a successful connection, the computer turns on as usual. Most often, after turning on, the tool for adding a new device appears on the screen.

If the hard drive is not detected by the system, you must enter the menu "Control Panel", Further "system and safety"And"Administration", then "Computer management”, Then“ Disk Management ”and format the new volume.

After formatting, click on the unallocated space with the right mouse button and select “Create new volume».

Thus, a computer with 2 to 3 hard drives can be considered an ideal option, the smallest of which will be allocated to the operating system (system disk).

It is recommended to install an SSD hard drive under the system, as the fastest drive currently existing.

The HDD installed in the computer will be displayed in My Computer as local drives.

Features of installing a new disk in the system unit

Consider the question of how to install a new hard drive. First you need to insert our hard drive in a specially designated place for it, usually it should be looked closer to the front of the case.

Select its location in the hard drive bay. The hard drive needs to be installed where it is best cooled by PC coolers. Its optimal position is in the center. Install the new hard drive horizontally and fix it firmly. Fasten the screws well so that they are located on both sides.

Reliable fastening will prevent the occurrence of vibrations of the hard drive itself during operation. Vibration for a hard disk having moving mechanical elements is destructive. In addition, with a tight contact between the disk and the body of the wall, like the radiator, the heat generated by the hard drive is removed. Next, connect the power and data cables.

How to install a new SATA drive

Unlike the outdated IDE, the more advanced SATA connector connects a lot more easily. As we already know, this standard connects each of the hard drives with a separate cable.

The SATA hard drive interface also has two connectors: narrow and wide. But here the question of how to install a new hard drive is the availability of another connector, through which data is transmitted from the motherboard, and voltage is supplied through a wide one.

SATA cable is connected to the data connector. They are different: straight and angular, without latches and with them. But it is impossible to mix and stick the cable with the wrong side, so there is nothing to be afraid of.

Winchester can be connected to the SATA connector arbitrarily. Although there are options for SATA-1, 2, and 3 standards, they differ only in the speed of information transfer and are absolutely compatible both at the physical connection level and logically.

The second end of the cable is connected to the connector on the motherboard. They can also be angular and straight, usually they are painted in bright colors and are easily recognizable.

Connect power to the drive

After the most labor-intensive operations were carried out, and we figured out how to install a new hard drive, now it remains only to connect it to the power supply.

It is supplied to both the IDE and SATA drives directly from the PC power supply. On IDE disks, it enters through Molex connectors, and the SATA standard has its own connector - a wider one.

Keep in mind that SATA power is not always initially present in the set of connectors on the computer’s power supply itself. It may turn out that you have a PC with an old model unit, and this connector is not there. How to install a hard drive on a computer in this case?

It all depends on the specific power supply model. In this case, the IDE-SATA adapter will help you. They come in various designs, and sometimes some instances also act as splitters for several devices. Basically, this is all that is needed to know how to install a hard drive on a computer. But what if you have one hard drive, but you want to add a second?

Initialization, Layout, and Formatting

To install the disk into the system, we will use the computer management console and the one located there disk manager snap.

Connect the drive and start the computer. Right-click the This PC icon on the desktop and select Control. After starting the computer management console and select the command Drive management.

If the disk is new, the first operation the system will offer is to initialize it. At this point, you must decide whether to create the MBR boot sector or whether partition information will be saved using GPT.

GUID Partition Table (GPT) provides support for hard drives larger than 2 TB (Windows cannot start from MBR drives above this size), but it is not compatible with earlier versions of the system.

In the case of small disks and due to compatibility with previous versions, it is recommended to use MBR. Make sure in the window Select drives, the correct media is selected, then select the appropriate option below. Click OK.

Depending on the size of the new disk, it is now worth considering how to divide its surface into partitions. In making this decision, the type of data that will be stored on the medium must be taken into account. The larger the section, the larger the distribution block, i.e. minimum blockwhich is used during recording.

Data that is smaller than this block still occupies its entire surface. The appearance of empty space is connected with this. In other words, if small files are stored on the disk, it will be better if the block gets smaller. The block size does not matter if you need space to store movies weighing several gigabytes.

Despite the capacity of the media and its purpose, it is worth creating at least two partitions on it. In the future, this can greatly facilitate data management.

Right-click the field representing the surface of the disk and select Create a simple volume.

In the first wizard window, click Next. Divide the disk into two identical sections - in the field Simple Volume Size (MB) enter a value equal to half the maximum disk size indicated in the first line at the top. Click Next.

Do not be alarmed if, in a hurry, you added all the free space to the section, you can reduce it after creation (the Compress Volume function). If the partition turned out to be too small, and there is free space on the disk, you can easily enlarge the partition (the Expand Volume function).

Leave the parameter unchanged. Assign a drive letter, and go on. Select Format this volume as follows. In the list File system install NTFS. Cluster size below leave Default. In field Volume label Give the disk a name (which is more convenient for you).

Adding a new hard disk or changing the partition structure of the disk used is worth full formatting instead of fast. Due to this, bad sectors will be identified and their contents discarded, which is not done in case of quick formatting. Therefore, clear the Quick Format check box. Uncheck also Apply file and folder compression. In the era of large carriers, it makes no sense to use compression, which consumes computing power for additional operations.

In the next step, confirm all the settings and wait until the section is formatted. For large media, full formatting may take some time.

If you decide to create more than one partition, right-click on the remaining unallocated part of the disk and select Create a simple volume. Repeat the entire operation with the only difference being that this time assign the remaining available space to the partition.

If an operating system is installed on this disk, one of the partitions must be activated. Right-click the appropriate drive partition, and then select Make partition active. Adding a new disk is completed. All sections will be visible in Explorer.

How to install a second hard drive

Sometimes a situation arises when, when uploading new files, you suddenly find that your hard drive does not have the necessary free space for this. Of course, there is a way out - to delete old unnecessary documents and defragment, but all these attempts to free up several hundred megabytes (or gigabytes at best) are only a temporary success. After some time, it turns out that the disc is jammed again, and you have no place for new films or music.

What to do in this case? There are several ways to solve the problem. You can change your old hard drive to a new one, which has a much larger amount of memory. Как установить новый жесткий диск, уже было описано выше. Но нужно понимать, что это влечет за собой обилие дополнительных проблем. Необходимо заново переустанавливать ОС, а соответственно, и все ранее закачанные драйверы, приложения и программы. Также придется переносить всю важную информацию со старого диска на новый.A lot of time will be spent on this operation.

But there is another way to solve the problem - to purchase a second, additional hard drive. How to install a second hard drive, consider further.

Installing an additional SATA hard drive in practice has proven an increase in the speed of the system. Interacting with heavy software systems, you can qualitatively feel the superiority of the new format. Applications and programs do not slow down at all, and downloading occurs instantly. In addition, the power consumption and power of SATA disks are minimal, which practically does not lead to a possible overheating of hard drives.

MBR or GPT - what to choose for a new disc

The standard in which the disk structure is created defines, among other things, the way to create partitions, their maximum size.

Currently, two methods are used to determine the structure of carriers - MBR (Master Boot Record) and GPT (GUID Partition Table).

MBR means located at the beginning of each disk of the main boot sector. It contains code to initialize the loading of the operating system, as well as information about the structure of the partition. Corruption to this code makes it impossible to start Windows or Linux correctly.

This standard has been applied since the eighties of the last century and has significant limitations. It does not allow, for example, to start the system from partitions larger than 2 TB. Also limits the number of main sections created - four - More can be obtained only through the creation of logical drives.

The GPT standard is directly linked to UEFI (the successor to BIOS). Within it, each section on each disk in the world gets a unique identifier. The standard provides support for large disks - restrictions depend only on the installed operating system and the file system used. It is the same with the limit of created partitions.

Copies of the launch of the code responsible for the operation of the system, in this case, are placed all over the medium, therefore, in case of damage to the master record, the information is easily restored. Validation of data facilitates the recording of CRC values.

The GPT also contains additional information to protect against overwriting the boot record (the so-called protected MBR) with old disk utilities that support only the MBR standard.

Windows can be launched from the GPT partition only on 64-bit operating systems installed on computers with UEFI, and all versions of Windows, starting with Vista, can cope with data disk support. The GPT standard is also used on Linux and macOS.

How to connect a second hard drive?

The procedure for connecting a second, additional, hard drive is no different from how to install a hard drive on a computer for the first time, and corresponds to the previously described process.

When connecting a second IDE hard disk, there is a small nuance - a jumper. It is necessary to establish its status using a special jumper. For the main hard drive, it must be put in the Master position, and for an additional one - in the Slave position. In new SATA format drives, this is no longer necessary.

Each hard drive in the system unit has its own compartment. It is only necessary to ensure that the distance between the installed devices is sufficient to ensure good ventilation. Do not place them close to each other, it is better to leave a free span. If there is no possibility to distribute two disks on different shelves, you can install an additional fan to prevent overheating of the media, which negatively affects the durability of the elements and the safety of your information.

After that, carefully attach each hard drive to the chassis to avoid vibration. If after turning on the second hard drive they nevertheless appeared, this indicates a clear malfunction. Vibrations threaten you with hard drive errors and the possibility of losing information. Therefore, do not neglect fasteners. This will help minimize the possibility of vibration.

In which system to format the disk

For a regular Windows user, the answer to a question which file system to use simple - NTFS. It is a good, efficient, and secure file system with a wide range of maintenance tools.

In the era of large disks, the use of FAT and FAT32 systems should be avoided. Among Linux users, ext2, ext3 and ext4, JFS or BTRFS are popular. The market is also being conquered by the latest damage-proof file systems, including ZFS or ReFS.

What to look for after installation

Recently, they began to attach the appropriate instructions to the hard drive, which says how to install a hard drive on a computer, so if you additionally look there, there should not be any difficulties in the process. After the work done, take care not only to connect the cables correctly, but to lay them carefully so that they do not stick out. If possible, bring them farther inward and, if necessary, fasten them with electrical tape or plastic ties.