Archery is not an easy process. To hit the target, you need a full concentration of attention, proper breathing and precise motor actions. You will have to take into account a large number of various nuances. And if you are interested in how to shoot a bow properly, you should familiarize yourself with this review.
Shooting training is highly dependent on the bow you have chosen. Over a long period of time, our ancestors used this weapon in order to seek food and defend themselves from enemies and wild animals. At first, onions looked like a flexible rod or root, the ends of which were connected using veins, skin or fibers of plant origin. According to archaeologists, in ancient times, there were both simple and complex varieties of this weapon. The second type of bows was characterized by increased wear resistance, durability and a higher firing range compared to simple ones. This is facilitated by the presence of a large number of blocks.
To understand how to shoot a bow properly, you must first choose it wisely. If it turns out to bend the arc only a few millimeters, then the material is high-quality, elastic. For the training process, you will need to purchase arrows. They should not be sharp, otherwise you can easily get hurt. For training you will need to find a deserted place. And if there is no desire that any section on archery is engaged in your training, it is worthwhile to understand that not only people, but also animals should be on the shooting range. Otherwise, you could injure someone.
How to shoot? The choice of method mainly depends on the physical condition of the shooter, his weight, body structure. There are other parameters that cannot be called insignificant. If you want to figure out how to shoot a bow properly, you first need to learn a technique that resembles meditation. Its essence is not in the exact hit or in the tension of the bowstring. First of all, you need to learn to control yourself. And it is advisable to focus all this attention on this art. The arrows, who at one time learned to transform their own state, are able to hit the target without even thinking about it.
Based on the foregoing, we can conclude: it is important not only what bows for shooting you use, but also in what state you are, hitting targets. Complete calm, harmony with the inner world will tell you at what point should you release the bowstring. Some shooters take years to achieve this state. And if you have time, it is worth thinking about this art.
Today there are a huge number of techniques that you can use. Which bows for shooting will be used in this case is not particularly important. In other words, you can take both standard weapons and sports ones. It all depends on your own preferences. One more popular technique should be described in more detail. Knowing this technique, you will not have to study in great detail how the arrows should be captured, how to aim, etc. You will have to deal with these nuances yourself, bringing the convenience factor to the forefront. First of all, it is necessary to achieve increased results. It is recommended to constantly improve your own skills.
How to learn to shoot from a bow? You need to stand with your left side to the target, legs apart at shoulder width for stability. Socks should be on a straight line that leads to the goal. This is a side pillar. With your left, straightened hand, you need to grab the arsenal in the middle. It should be noted that some weapons (for example, classic sports bow) at this place have a special mark.
It is necessary to raise the shooting tool to shoulder level. A hand holding a weapon may interfere with firing. Therefore, we must carefully monitor that this was not. Otherwise, you may be injured. The arrow needs to be held between two fingers - index and middle. Or rather, a place that is located between the first and second joints. By grasping the tail of the arrow in this way, you will subsequently pull the string. To ensure comfort and accuracy of shooting, it is recommended to achieve a uniform load on both fingers.
Bowstring tension and aiming
How to shoot from a bow? The boom should be pulled as close to the neck as possible. But you can stretch even to the chin. A similar technique will also be correct. It all depends on how convenient it is for you and what results should be obtained. While holding the bow in a taut state, make sure that the forearm with the shoulder of the left hand are in line. It should also be noted that during tension the archer needs to retract the shoulder blades. This allows you to minimize the work of the remaining muscles of the body. If you have chosen a historical bow, then aiming will be done according to promptings from the side of intuition. Sports types of this weapon have a special sight.
How to hit the target?
If you are interested in how to shoot accurately from a bow while hitting a target, you should familiarize yourself with some rules:
- Weapons must be kept confidently. Hands should not tremble. Do not change the height or slope. In this situation, the arrow will fly anywhere, but not at the target. Therefore, if you want to achieve good results, you will need to devote a lot of time to training. For example, in ancient times, archers stood idle for hours, holding sticks in outstretched hands. A similar process helps to learn to keep objects on weight.
- When shooting, try to keep track of what position your hands are in. One of the most common mistakes is not very good fixation of the left limb. An oversight is equally common when the archer's right hand moves behind the arrow immediately after the bowstring has been released. But you just need to unclench your fingers, leaving the brush in the same place where it was at the time of the shot.
- Breathing should be measured. If it is too frequent, then the shot will be unsuccessful. The shooting technique implies that the bowstring should be released on a half-exhalation, holding your breath slightly.
- Every shot must be analyzed. For this reason, after the first volley do not immediately proceed to the next. Try to mark the trajectory of the “shell”, analyze the errors and draw certain conclusions so that the oversights are no longer repeated.
Shooting range selection
If the beam shooting range does not suit you, you do not want to visit special sections, you need to prepare a site for shooting. To do this, it is recommended to take into account some important points:
- The selected site must be equipped. The line of fire should be one. If there are several targets, then it is advisable to place them at different distances. For example, to the nearest target should be 18 meters, to the farthest - 90.
- You need to think about providing safe areas on the right and left sides of the shooting range. Directly behind the targets should be installed a fence or a special boomcatcher. Such a precaution is necessary so as not to injure anyone or lose “ammunition”.
- In the best case scenario, the target size should exceed 122 cm in all directions.
Do not forget about security
If you decide to learn how to shoot, have acquired weapons, prepared a target for archery and a shooting range, then you should familiarize yourself with the basic recommendations regarding safety:
- It is necessary to shoot in specially designated places. Or on equipped with all the rules sites with fences.
- It is advisable to shoot from the same line, even if the targets are located at different distances.
- It is recommended to place the arrow on a bowstring only at a time when there are no people or animals between the target and the archer who can be injured due to careless and inattentive actions.
- The bowstring tension should occur only from the firing line and only in the direction of the chosen target.
- If you have already stretched the bow, you should forget about any conversations. In addition, it is forbidden to turn to the side, lose concentration. It is not recommended to hail the archer.
- You should approach the target only at the moment when the shooting was finished, at the signal of the leader or the shooter himself, if you train on your own.
- Forget shooting up in the air.
- Do not forget that the responsibility for any accident resulting from a violation of safety rules lies directly with the archer.
A bit about targets
An archer needs to constantly improve, develop his skills, and train. And so that the classes are effective, it is worth thinking about shooting goals. You can make a target for archery yourself, but it's better to think about buying a finished product. Today, there are a huge number of different options. There is even a division of all targets into groups. They can be curly or round. The former are unique in that they can follow the contours of humans or animals. The second have a special markup, which allows you to count points. They are the ones that are more preferable for competitions.
Varieties of targets
As already mentioned, there are a huge number of different targets. The most popular should be listed:
- Electronic target. It means a shield equipped with special equipment and electronics. A similar stand works on a fairly simple principle. At the moment of the hit of the “shell”, all necessary parameters are automatically calculated and registered. The results of each archer are summarized. The first such targets arose in 1989. More advanced models designed for shooting at a moving target were developed in 2004. Such targets are often used in competitions.
- Paper target. It is most optimal for those who want to figure out how to shoot a bow properly. The main advantage is that it is easy to create on your own. Simply download the desired picture from the Internet, print it and hang it on a special stand.
- Shields. If you are interested in the durability of arrows, then you need to think about purchasing a shooting stand. That shield will keep the "shells" in optimal condition. In addition, such a target for archery is able to withstand numerous hits.
- Children's stands. At the present stage, one can find not only specialized targets for various sections and shooting galleries, but also children's options for shields. Usually this is a metal sheet on which there is a marking or a specific target. A child’s bow should be understood as a weapon that shoots arrows on suction cups.
Now you know how to choose a bow, what kind of target it can be, how to fire properly, given the technique and basic recommendations regarding safety. Try to learn all the nuances, constantly improve, set new goals and objectives. And if you want to learn how to shoot archery well, do not forget about regular training.
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Putting on and removing the bowstring
There are several ways to put on or remove a bowstring.
Consider common in our country and abroad the most rational ways to put on and take off the bowstring. The main advantage of these methods is the prevention of twisting of the shoulders of the bow when it is bent.
with a belt
with a belt
using the foot
using a special cord with leather loops at the ends
So, you need to put a string of shoulders on the ear of the lower shoulder and, holding the upper loop in the left hand, and in the right bow for the upper shoulder (closer to the ear), pass the right leg between the bow and bowstring. Then, fixing the bow of the bow with the lower end to the outer surface of the left boot, and the back surface of the handle to the back surface of the right thigh, bend it by pressing the front surface of the upper shoulder with your right hand and put another bowstring loop on his ear. When bending the bow, it is necessary to ensure that the movement of the right hand occurs in the working plane of the bow.
The technique of a sporting exercise is understood as the most rational way of its implementation, in other words, the sporting technique is a specialized system of simultaneous movements aimed at the rational organization of the interaction of internal and external forces acting on the athlete’s body, with the aim of the most complete and efficient use of them for achieving the highest possible results "(V.M. Dyachkov).
This definition fully applies to the archery technique. Athletes need to understand that the process of a shot is a motor skill, a controlled action.
Modern biotechnology considers sports technology as the structure of “control processes carried out by the athlete’s biomechanical apparatus and aimed at the implementation of the motor programs of this sport” (F.K. Agashin). The motor program of archery (its kinematic structure) is based on the provisions described in the article "Some Questions of the Theory of Sports Archery" (collection of "Colorful Targets", 1977).
In this work, external manifestations of the shooting technique are considered, which are reduced to an analysis of the relative position of the athlete’s links and their relative movement in time and space.
Teaching technology is reduced to the creation and improvement of processes for controlling the movements of the shooter, to the organization of such connections in the biomechanical apparatus of the arrow from the bow, which ensures maximum reliability of the motor program. Despite the fact that the technique of the shooters can be different due to individual characteristics and views on issues of shooting technology, the elements of technology recommended below make up a certain system.
The shooter must find and take a position in which the fluctuation of his body and, accordingly, of the bow will be minimal. Moreover, this position should be easily and accurately reproduced before each shot and contribute to the work of muscles throughout the competition.
Accuracy of shooting largely depends on the location of the body of the shooter and bow immediately before the shot and should ensure the release of the arrow in the plane of the shot.
Thus, the archery technique is a complex of movements and certain positions of the parts of the human body necessary to perform a shot, providing the maximum probability (reliability) of hitting the target. It includes: manufacturing, aiming, processing a shot (the technique of its execution), breathing control, preparation for the next shot. Each component of the complex is also divided into a number of elements.
Arrow installation on the bow
Before the shot, the arrow is inserted with the shank into the bow of the bowstring and stacked on the shelf. For athletes using the clicker, an arrow is introduced under him. The onion is held with the left hand (for left-handed manufacturing) horizontally or with a slight tilt of the handle window.
The arrow is taken with the right hand closer to the plumage and inserted with the shank into the nest, and the middle part is placed on the lower ledge of the window. Then, with the right hand, the arrow is introduced under the clicker and lowered to the shelf.
Some arrows, especially those in which the clicker is made with a bend in its upper part, insert the arrow, first passing it under the bend of the clicker, lower it to the shelf and only then insert it with the shank into the socket. In this case, and with other methods of preparing the arrow for a shot, each time you need to carefully monitor that the guiding pen is directed away from the bow, as shown in the figure.
In order to ensure safety, an arrow can only be inserted on the firing line and when the bow is directed towards the target.
The manufacture is determined by the position of the legs, torso, arms and head in relation to the direction of fire. It should be natural and not change from shot to shot, from series to series. The manufacture of the arrow is divided into the initial and working.
Initial production is the position of the shooter in a state of readiness to stretch the bow.
When accepting the initial manufacture, the shooter performs a series of actions:
Workmanship. Having accepted and verified the correctness of the accepted initial position of all parts of the body, the shooter stretches the bow until the bow string touches the front surface of the chin. At the same time, the arm is bent at the elbow joint so that the hand is as close to the neck as possible, and the forearm and shoulder, forming an acute angle, are almost in the same horizontal plane. Stretching the onion is carried out only by tension of the posterior bundles of the deltoid muscle and the muscles that take the scapula back. The nail phalanges and the finger flexors holding them perform the function of capturing the bowstring.
After clarification in aiming, the execution of reaching the shooter is at the stage of completion of preparation for the shot and is ready to complete it.
The position of the body is one of the main elements of the rack.
It should be stable, monotonous and as natural as possible, should not bend or twist.
At manufacture, the casing should be positioned vertically, leaning slightly forward. Checking the correctness of manufacture is carried out by tensioning the bowstring in front of the mirror.
The arrowhead should be turned towards the target with a slight tilt to the left (towards the back). The chin should be slightly raised, which makes it convenient to place the hand of the pulling hand.
When learning the correct position of the head, the coach, standing in front of the shooter and holding his bow with his right hand, adjusts the position of the head with his left hand.
The position of the hand holding the bow.
The hand holding the bow in weight experiences the elasticity of the bow during the release of the bowstring and extension of the shoulders. Performing static work, she participates not only in stretching the bow, but also in pointing and holding the bow towards the target - in aiming. The position of the individual links of the left hand relative to the plane of the shot must meet the following requirements:
The position of the left hand and its links relative to the plane of the shot affects the degree of tension of the muscles of the shoulder girdle. The farther the axis of the joints are located from the plane of the shot, the greater the load the muscles experience while holding the extended bow. From this point of view, it is advisable, if possible, to bring your hand closer to the direction of the arrow.
The position of the brush on the handle
The hand is set in the direction of the target, palm down
The brush rotates so that the thumb is up
When overstretching the arm in the elbow joint, it is recommended that a complex rotational movement of the hand be made to avoid strokes by the bowstring.
The brush, forearm and shoulder while holding the extended bow should be located on one straight line lying in the plane of the shot. The hand under the action of the reverse force of the onion stretching arising from the shot moves in the direction of action of this force. Thus, the natural direction of the left hand retreat after the shot is its movement along the plane of the shot, i.e. towards the target.
Types of grip
High grip without grip
High grip with grip
Low grip without grip
Low grip with grip
The place of emphasis in the handle is in the same horizontal plane with the wrist joint, i.e. the hand and forearm make one straight line. The palm of the fingers, spread apart or loosened, loosely touches the handle or is held horizontally. Off grip requires significant muscle effort when fixing the wrist joint, but significantly reduces the possibility of displacements of the center of application of the bow resistance force.
The position of the hand pulling the bowstring.
The right hand pulls the bowstring, and if the movement stops, then only during the preliminary aiming period. Aiming is carried out against the background of a slow, barely noticeable to the eye movement of the hand pulling the bowstring.
Before considering the section the position of the hand pulling the bowstring, it is necessary to consider the methods of capturing the bowstring, and only then - the position and work of the whole hand.
Bowstring Capture Used in Target Sports Shooting
Capture is performed with index, middle and ring fingers. The bowstring is placed on the first (nail) phalanges, closer to the joints, so that the arrow is between the index and middle, and the load is distributed evenly on all fingers. The middle, longer finger should be slightly bent in the second joint, then the third joint will approach the line of the three joints of the two fingers and, therefore, will take on an equal part of the load. For this purpose, use an additional pad on this finger - a fingertip.
The bowstring is perpendicular to the fingers
Shank should not be pinched between fingers
Incorrect placement of fingers on a bowstring
Extra finger pad
Fingers should be straightened
Finger load unevenly distributed
The thumb and little finger are not involved in holding the bowstring. To avoid interference from the thumb, use the following most common methods of brush application.
a) presses it to the palm of the hand (submandibular method),
b) removes and presses the front surface to the neck (suture method),
c) leads and presses to the back surface of the lower jaw (maxillary method)
Aiming is aiming the bow at the target and keeping it in this position until a shot is fired.
Aiming consists of a visual assessment of sights and direct actions that guide and hold the bow, arrow, bowstring.
When aiming, control is carried out:
- for combining the aiming line with the aiming point,
- behind the projection of the bowstring relative to the plane of fire,
- for saving the shooter base.
When archery, aiming is carried out in several ways. For example, aiming on an arrow: the shank of the arrow is located at the height of the eye. With a change in the base of the shooter - due to the installation of the shank of the arrow at different eye heights (depending on the distance).
Arrow aiming and arrow base change
Butt with control by a latch on a bowstring
Leakage of teeth is not allowed arrow
Currently, the most common aiming method is the constantly maintained distance from the eye to the shank of the boom. This distance (base) is maintained due to the dense application of the hand of the hand pulling the bowstring under the chin, with the bowstring fixed at two points (chin, tip of the nose). Some athletes use the “button” on the string to fix the distance from the eye to the arrow for more precise fixation. Leakage of the arrow teeth is not allowed, as this increases the base of the arrow and the arrows fly up.
The second point is the sight front sight, which is fixed on the front, back of the bow handle or on the remote ruler, which moves vertically and horizontally. The aiming point in shooting is the target. The shooter fixes the front sight through the projection of the bowstring, which should pass along the geometric axis of the bow handle
A - moving engine of the sight (front sight)
B - base arrow
C - the value of the boom tension
H - tension fixation point
M - aiming point
T is the top of the trajectory
P - hit point
Y - elevation angle
D - firing distance
OAM - line of sight
The aiming scheme shown in the figure will help familiarize beginners with the aiming sight, assess the deviation of the points (eye, bowstring, front sight, center of the target) that make up the aiming line, and the effect of these deviations on the arrow's flight path will make you take your actions with due responsibility handling the shot.
Aiming should provide guidance of the bow in the target with constant stretching of the bow and the required angle of elevation (throwing) of the arrow, so the actions of the shooter associated with pointing the bow into the target: release the arrow, determine the position of the axis of symmetry of the bow, arrow, bowstring, arrow trajectory, point hits - must be in one vertically located plane, i.e. in the plane of the shot.
For aiming from a sports bow with a three-finger grip of the bowstring, the following sequence of its execution is recommended, providing the following requirements:
- Acceptance of the workpiece should be made prior to clarification when aiming.
- The position of the head is fixed by the tension of the muscles of the neck and back so that the line of sight passes through the eye of the arrow, bowstring, front sight and target and coincides with the plane of the shot. The quality of the hit depends on the stability of rotation and tilt of the head.
- The base of the arrow (the distance between the eye and the arrow attached to the bow) should be constant. This is achieved using a dense "winding up" of the brush under the lower jaw.
- The position of the fingers on the bowstring should not take it out of the plane of the shot and change the pulling force of the bow by increasing or decreasing the efforts exerted by the ring finger (this happens when lifting the elbow up). The bowstring is firmly resting on the chin when processing the shot; must withdraw the bowstring from the vertical plane of the bow. When fixing the bowstring on the right (or left) side of the jaw (the right or left wing of the nostrils of the nose), the vertical plane of the bow should also coincide with the aiming line.
- With the vertical plane of the shot there should not be a bow obstruction. Heap onion occurs around an axis located between the points of its support in the extended position, these points are the brush of the left and right hand. It can be approximately assumed that the bow turns around the axis of the arrow when blocking. If the archer shoots with a constant bow obstruction, then he is not exempt from errors in the hit and tilt angle control is necessary.
- The change in aiming relative to the vertical axis occurs due to the rotation of the body in the plane of the shot.
- The direction of the arrow can serve as control of the correctness of the hit (provided that the axis of the arrow coincides with the vertical plane of the bow: the bowstring and the front sight are projected along the axis of the bow). The combination of the sight with the target in height is achieved by a slight tilt of the body.
- When aiming, the shooter must rationalize his movements (stretching the bow, brushing), which will reduce the time it takes to process the shot, and hence the shooter's energy consumption during its execution. As in bullet shooting, in archery it is recommended to aim at the squinting second eye. At the same time, vision fatigue is less, the clarity in distinguishing the front sight is longer. The peculiarities of a person’s vision are such that he cannot simultaneously distinguish between distant and close objects. For this reason, it is impossible to clearly distinguish between the front and the target at the same time. That is why it is preferable to focus vision on the fly and to design its clear outlines on a blurry target.
Handling the shot is the last phase in stretching the bow, aiming and reaching, which ends with a shot - the arrow moves away from the bowstring. An aimed shot is as follows. Having taken a firing position (bow in a lowered hand), assessing its correctness (attitude towards the target, setting legs, head, etc.) and familiarizing with the objective conditions for the upcoming shot, the shooter raises the bow and, holding it in his hand (extended towards the target ), accepts the manufacture, pulls the bowstring, directs the bow with the front sight to the center of the target and, holding this orientation, resumes stretching, but already very slowly, without interfering with the immobility of the entire system of “bow-and-arrow”. Against this background, at the moment when the arrow came out from under the clicker (provided that the bow did not change its orientation with the fly in the middle of the target), the bowstring is detached. Reaching starts with moving the arrow from under the clicker and ends with a click. By this sound signal, the bowstring is released, which ends with the complete separation of the bowstring from the chin.
The shooter's actions to release the bowstring should be carried out in the direction of the plane of the shot, and the bowstring should go only from the chin. Both arms are involved in the boom exit. В фазах дотягивания и освобождения тетивы левая рука наращивает давление на рукоятку лука в направлении выстрела, помогая как бы правой руке, но ни в коем случае не подменяя ее. При такой работе левой руки, когда произошел разрыв цепи "лук-стрелок", она перемещает лук в направлении выстрела, не сбивая наводки его.The right hand moves back.
Before accepting the initial production, you should breathe calmly, a little in depth, then, closer to the beginning, stretching the bowstring, more superficially. Handling the shot should be done when holding the breath on the floor exhale. The respiratory cycle consists of inhalation, exhalation and pause. In one minute, a person in a calm state produces an average of 12-15 cycles, that is, one respiratory cycle lasts 4-5 seconds. After exhalation - a 2-3 second pause. This natural pause is usually used by the shooter to handle the shot. But in order for it to be enough for the whole shot, breathing is held just before the onset of a natural pause, and extend it until the bowstring is released. Thus, it increases to 10-12 seconds required for processing the shot. Properly set breathing that corresponds to the rhythm of firing provides the body with normal rest, protects it from premature fatigue.
Preparing for the next shot
Preparation for the next shot is a set of actions of the shooter after the shot, ensuring its recovery, analysis of the shot and the decision to maintain or improve the quality of the hit.
Preparation for the execution of the shot consists of actions that take place in a very short period of time (an average of 50 seconds for the whole complex of preparatory measures and a shot). After the shot is completed, the shooter must maintain the position and position of the bow in the outstretched arm until the arrow hits the target, mark the shot using binoculars or short distances without it, and conduct a thorough analysis of the shot. When analyzing a shot in the event of an adverse hit, the cause should be determined. If the error is fixed, decide on how to fix it. If the cause of the error is unknown, then you need to perform the next shot, after a second analysis, find the cause of the error and make an appropriate decision.
Preparation for the next shot is made up of the following arrow actions:
- mark the arrow hit the target,
- maintaining a pose
- analysis of the shot,
- making decisions on shooting techniques and tactics,
- recovery of forces spent on the shot.